U+2014 EM DASH

U+2014 was added to Unicode in version 1.1. It belongs to the block General Punctuation in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Dash Punctuation and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Ambiguous East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Other Neutral and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 16 other glyphs. In text U+2014 behaves as Break Both regarding line breaks. It has type SContinue for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

A dash is a punctuation mark that is similar to a hyphen or minus sign, but differs from both of these symbols primarily in length and function. The most common versions of the dash are the en dash () and the em dash (), named for the length of a typeface's lower-case n and upper-case M respectively.

Usage varies both within English and in other languages, but the usual convention in printed English text is:

  • Either version may be used to denote a break in a sentence or to set off parenthetical statements (ideally with intradocument consistency). In this function, en dashes are used with spaces and em dashes are used without them:

    [Em dash:] A flock of sparrows—some of them juveniles—alighted and sang.

    [En dash:] A flock of sparrows – some of them juveniles – alighted and sang.

  • The en dash (but not the em dash) is also used to indicate spans or differentiation, where it may be considered to replace "and" or "to" (but not "to" in the phrase "from … to …"):

    The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was fought in western Pennsylvania and along the present US–Canadian border (Edwards, pp. 81–101).

  • The em dash (but not the en dash) is also used to set off the sources of quotes:

    "In matters of grave importance, style, not sincerity, is the vital thing."—Oscar Wilde

Representations

System Representation
8212
UTF-8 E2 80 94
UTF-16 20 14
UTF-32 00 00 20 14
URL-Quoted %E2%80%94
HTML-Escape —
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake —
HTML-Escape —
digraph -M
LaTeX \textemdash
HTML-Escape —

Related Characters

Confusables

Elsewhere

Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) EM DASH
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Punctuation
General Category (gc) Dash Punctuation
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Other Neutral
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) 2014
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) 2014
Lowercase Mapping (lc) 2014
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) 2014
Uppercase Mapping (uc) 2014
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) 2014
Titlecase Mapping (tc) 2014
Case Folding (cf) 2014
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) 2014
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Ambiguous
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) 2014
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Matra Category (InMC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Consonant_Placeholder
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Break Both
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) 2014
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) SContinue
Simple Case Folding (scf) 2014
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)