Home: go to the homepage U+2C00 to U+2C5F Glagolitic
Glyph for U+2C4F
Source: Noto Sans Glagolitic

U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru

U+2C4F was added in Unicode version 4.1 in 2005. It belongs to the block U+2C00 to U+2C5F Glagolitic in the U+0000 to U+FFFF Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Lowercase Letter and is mainly used in the Glagolitic script. Its uppercase variant is Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru and its titlecase variant is Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru.

The glyph is not a composition. It has no designated width in East Asian texts. In bidirectional text it is written from left to right. When changing direction it is not mirrored. The word that U+2C4F forms with similar adjacent characters prevents a line break inside it.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

The Glagolitic script (, ⰃⰎⰀⰃⰑⰎⰉⰜⰀ, glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed that it was created in the 9th century for the purpose of translating liturgical texts into Old Church Slavonic by Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessalonica. He and his brother Saint Methodius were sent by the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 863 to Great Moravia to spread Christianity there. After the deaths of Cyril and Methodius, their disciples were expelled and they moved to the First Bulgarian Empire instead. The Cyrillic alphabet, which developed gradually in the Preslav Literary School by Greek alphabet scribes who incorporated some Glagolitic letters, gradually replaced Glagolitic in that region. Glagolitic remained in use alongside Latin in the Kingdom of Croatia and alongside Cyrillic until the 14th century in the Second Bulgarian Empire and the Serbian Empire, and later mainly for cryptographic purposes.

Glagolitic also spread to the Kievan Rus' and the Kingdom of Bohemia, though its use declined there in the 12th century, although some manuscripts in the territory of the former retained Glagolitic inclusions for centuries. It had also spread to Duklja and Zachlumia, from which it reached the March of Verona where the Investiture Controversy afforded it refuge from the opposition of Latin rite prelates, and allowed it to entrench itself in Istria, spreading from there to nearby lands.

It survived there and as far south as Dalmatia without interruption into the 20th century for Church Slavonic in addition to its use as a secular script in parts of its range, which at times extended into Bosnia, Slavonia, and Carniola, in addition to 14th-15th century exclaves in Prague and Kraków, and a 16th century exclave in Putna.

Its authorship by Cyril was forgotten, having been replaced with an attribution to St. Jerome by the early Benedictine adopters of Istria in a bid to secure the approval of the papacy. The bid was ultimately successful, though sporadic restrictions and repressions from individual bishops continued even after its official recognition by Pope Innocent IV. These had little effect on the vitality of the script, which evolved from its original Rounded Glagolitic form into an Angular Glagolitic form, in addition to a cursive form developed for notary purposes.

But the Ottoman conquests left the script without most of its continental population, and as a result of the Counter-Reformation its use was restricted in Istria and the Diocese of Zagreb, and the only active printing press with a Glagolitic type was confiscated, leading to a shift towards Latinic and Cyrillic literacy when coupled with the Tridentine requirement that priests be educated at seminaries. The result was its gradual death as a written script in most of its continental range, but also the unusually late survival of medieval scribal tradition for the reproduction of Glagolitic texts in isolated areas like the island of Krk and the Zadar Archipelago. Although the Propaganda Fide would eventually resume printing Glagolitic books, very few titles were published, so the majority of Glagolitic literary works continued to be written and copied by hand well into the 18th century.: 9  Of the major European scripts, only the Arabic script is comparable in this regard.

In the early 19th century, the policies of the First French Empire and Austrian Empire left the script without legal status and its last remaining centers of education were abolished, concurrent with the weakening of the script in the few remaining seminaries that used the cursive form in instruction, resulting in a rapid decline. But the when Slavicists discovered the script and established it as the original script devised by Cyril, Glagolitic gained new niche applications in certain intellectual circles, while a small number of priests fought to keep its liturgical use alive, encountering difficulties but eventually succeeding to the point that its area expanded in the early 20th century.

Latinic translations and transliterations of the matter of the missal in this period led to its decline in the decades before Vatican II, whose promulgation of the vernaucular had the effect of confining regular use of Glagolitic to a few monasteries and academic institutions, in addition to a small population of enthusiasts, whose numbers grew and shrank with the prevalence of the script in literature, but grew exponentially in pious and nationalist circles in the years leading up to and following Independence of Croatia, and again more broadly with the Internet.


System Representation
UTF-8 E2 B1 8F
UTF-16 2C 4F
UTF-32 00 00 2C 4F
URL-Quoted %E2%B1%8F
HTML hex reference ⱏ
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ⱏ

Related Characters


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 4.1 (2005)
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Glagolitic
General Category (gc) Lowercase Letter
Script (sc) Glagolitic
Bidirectional Category (bc) Left To Right
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) none
Decomposition Mapping (dm) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Lowercase Mapping (lc) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru
Uppercase Mapping (uc) Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru
Titlecase Mapping (tc) Glyph for U+2C1F Glagolitic Capital Letter Yeru
Case Folding (cf) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Cased (Cased)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Diacritic (Dia)
Emoji Modifier Base (EBase)
Emoji Component (EComp)
Emoji Modifier (EMod)
Emoji Presentation (EPres)
Emoji (Emoji)
Extender (Ext)
Extended Pictographic (ExtPict)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Grapheme Link (Gr_Link)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
ID_Compat_Math_Continue (ID_Compat_Math_Continue) 0
ID_Compat_Math_Start (ID_Compat_Math_Start) 0
Ideographic (Ideo)
InCB (InCB) None
Indic Mantra Category (InMC)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Join Control (Join_C)
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKC_SCF (NFKC_SCF) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Prepended Concatenation Mark (PCM)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Regional Indicator (RI)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Lower
Soft Dotted (SD)
Sentence Terminal (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Alphabetic Letter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
East Asian Width (ea) neutral
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Numeric Type (nt) none
Numeric Value (nv) not a number
Simple Case Folding (scf) Glyph for U+2C4F Glagolitic Small Letter Yeru
Script Extension (scx)
Vertical Orientation (vo) R