U+002D was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Basic Latin in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Dash Punctuation and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script. The character is also known as hyphen or minus sign.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Narrow East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as European Separator and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 16 other glyphs. In text U+002D behaves as Hyphen regarding line breaks. It has type SContinue for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

The hyphen-minus (-) is a character used in digital documents and computing to represent a hyphen (‐) or a minus sign (−). It is present in Unicode as code point U+002D - hyphen-minus; it is also in ASCII with the same value.

The use of one character for hyphen and minus, and sometimes also for en dash, was a compromise made in the early days of fixed-width typewriters and computer displays. However, in proper typesetting and graphic design, there are distinct characters for hyphens, dashes, and the minus sign. Usage of the hyphen-minus nonetheless persists in many contexts, as it is well-known, easy to enter on keyboards, and in the same location in all common character sets.

Most programming languages, restricting themselves to ASCII, use the hyphen-minus, rather than the Unicode character U+2212 − minus sign, for denoting subtraction and negative numbers.

The en-dash is historically a dash of the same width as a lowercase letter "n". The en-dash indicates ranges, such as 2000–2004, and compound adjectives, as in "Italian–American relations" (having to do with the relationship between Italy and America), as opposed to "Italian-American relations" (indicating relatives who are Americans of Italian descent). Hyphen-minuses are often used instead of en-dashes in these cases, but this practice generally stems from ignorance of the en-dash and is not preferred.

Historically, an em dash is the width of a lowercase letter "m", and may be represented by three hyphen-minus signs in succession (as later in TeX markup), or sometimes two.


System Representation
UTF-8 2D
UTF-16 00 2D
UTF-32 00 00 00 2D
URL-Quoted %2D
HTML-Escape -
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake -
digraph -
alias hyphen or minus sign

Related Characters

  • ﹣
  • -


  • ˗
  • ‐
  • ‑
  • ‒
  • –
  • ⁃
  • −
  • ∸
  • ➖
  • ⨩
  • ⨪
  • Ⲻ
  • ⸚
  • ꓾
  • ﬩
  • ﹘


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) HYPHEN-MINUS
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) ASCII
General Category (gc) Dash Punctuation
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) European Separator
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) -
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) -
Lowercase Mapping (lc) -
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) -
Uppercase Mapping (uc) -
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) -
Titlecase Mapping (tc) -
Case Folding (cf) -
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) -
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Narrow
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) -
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Consonant_Placeholder
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Hyphen
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) -
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) SContinue
Simple Case Folding (scf) -
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)