U+0259 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block IPA Extensions in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Lowercase Letter and is mainly used in the Latin script. It is related to its uppercase variant Ə and its titlecase variant Ə.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Left To Right and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 5 other glyphs. In text U+0259 behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type Lower for sentence and ALetter for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

Turned E, Ə ə in Azeri and Ǝ ǝ in African languages, is an additional letter of the Latin alphabet. In Azeri, both the majuscule and minuscule forms of this letter are based on the rotated form of a minuscule e; in African languages using the Pan-Nigerian Alphabet or the African reference alphabet, the minuscule is based on a rotated e and the capital form majuscule Ǝ, based on a horizontally flipped majuscule E.

In Azeri, the letter can look like Эə in handwritten form. The letter was used in the Uniform Turkic Alphabet, for example, in Janalif for the Tatar language in the 1920s-1930s. In the Latin Azerbaijani and Chechen alphabets, Ə represents the near-open front unrounded vowel, /æ/.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, minuscule ə is used to represent the mid central vowel or a schwa. Also, in a romanization of Pashto, the letter Ə is used to represent [ə].

In the Latin transliteration of Avestan, the corresponding long vowel is written as schwa-macron, Ə̄/ə̄.


System Representation
UTF-8 C9 99
UTF-16 02 59
UTF-32 00 00 02 59
URL-Quoted %C9%99
HTML-Escape ə
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ə
LaTeX \Elzschwa

Related Characters

  • Ə
  • ᵊ
  • ₔ


  • ǝ
  • ə
  • ɚ
  • ә
  • ᴔ


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) IPA_Ext
General Category (gc) Lowercase Letter
Script (sc) Latin
Bidirectional Category (bc) Left To Right
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ə
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ə
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ə
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) Ə
Uppercase Mapping (uc) Ə
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) Ə
Titlecase Mapping (tc) Ə
Case Folding (cf) ə
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ə
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ə
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ə
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Lower
Simple Case Folding (scf) ə
Script Extension (scx) Latin
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) ALetter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)