U+02BA was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Spacing Modifier Letters in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Modifier Letter and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Other Neutral and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 1 other glyphs. In text U+02BA behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type OLetter for sentence and ALetter for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets, namely ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ). The Glagolitic alphabet used as their respective counterparts the letters and . They originally represented phonemically the "ultra-short" vowels in Slavic languages (including Old Church Slavonic), collectively known as the yers. In all Slavic languages they either evolved into various "full" vowels or disappeared, in some cases leaving palatalization of adjacent consonants. At present, the only Slavic language that uses "ъ" as a vowel sign (pronounced /ɤ/) is Bulgarian (although in many cases it corresponds to earlier "ѫ", originally pronounced /ǫ/). Many languages using the Cyrillic alphabet have kept one or more of the yers to serve specific orthographic functions.

The back yer (Ъ, ъ, italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets and as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet. Pre-reform Russian orthography and texts in Old Russian and in Old Church Slavonic called the letter "back yer". Originally this yer denoted an ultra-short or reduced middle rounded vowel.

Its companion, the front yer (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь), now known as the soft sign in Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, and as er malək (ер малък, "small er") in Bulgarian, originally also represented a reduced vowel, more frontal than the ъ. Today it marks the palatalization of consonants in all of the Slavic languages written in the Cyrillic script, except in Serbian and Macedonian, which do not use it at all, although its traces remain in the forms of the palatalized letters њ and љ.


System Representation
UTF-16 02 BA
UTF-32 00 00 02 BA
URL-Quoted %CA%BA
HTML-Escape ʺ
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ʺ

Related Characters


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Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Modifier_Letters
General Category (gc) Modifier Letter
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Other Neutral
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ʺ
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ʺ
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ʺ
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ʺ
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ʺ
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ʺ
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ʺ
Case Folding (cf) ʺ
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ʺ
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ʺ
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ʺ
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) OLetter
Simple Case Folding (scf) ʺ
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) ALetter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)