U+0640 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Arabic in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Modifier Letter and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script. It is also used in the scripts Arabic, Mandaic, Mani, Phlp, Syriac. The character is also known as kashida.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Arabic Letter and is not mirrored. In text U+0640 behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type OLetter for sentence and ALetter for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

Kashida (Persian: کشیده‎; "extended", "stretched", "lengthened") is a type of justification used in some cursive scripts related to Arabic. In contrast to white-space justification, which increases the length of a line of text by expanding spaces between words or individual letters, kashida justification is accomplished by elongating characters at certain chosen points. Kashida justification can be combined with white-space justification to various extents.

The analog in European (Latin-based) typography (expanding or contracting letters to improve spacing) is sometimes called expansion, and falls within microtypography. Kashida is considerably easier and more flexible, however, because Arabic-Persian scripts feature prominent horizontal strokes, whose lengths are accordingly flexible.

For example, alħamdu and Raħīm with and without kashida may look like the following:

Kashida can also refer to a character representing this elongation (ـ) – also known as tatweel or taṭwīl (تطويل taṭwīl) – or to one of a set of glyphs of varying lengths that are used to implement this elongation in a font. The Unicode standard assigns codepoint U+0640 as "Arabic Tatweel".

The kashida can take a subtle downward curvature in some calligraphic styles and handwriting. However, the curvilinear stroke is not feasible for most basic fonts, which merely use a completely flat underscore-like stroke for kashida.

In addition to letter spacing and justification, kashida is also used for emphasis and as book or chapter titles. In modern Arabic mathematical notation, kashida is found in some operation symbols that need to be stretched to accommodate associated contents above or below them.

Kashida is generally only be used in one word per line and applied to one letter per word. Furthermore, kashida is recommended only between certain combinations of letters (typically those which cannot form a ligature). Some calligraphers – paid by the number of pages produced – used an inordinate amount of kashida in order to stretch the contents over more pages.


System Representation
UTF-8 D9 80
UTF-16 06 40
UTF-32 00 00 06 40
URL-Quoted %D9%80
HTML-Escape ـ
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ـ
digraph ++
alias kashida
Encoding: ISO-8859-6 (hex bytes) E0
Encoding: WINDOWS-1256 (hex bytes) DC

Related Characters

  • ﳲ
  • ﳳ
  • ﳴ
  • ﹱ
  • ﹷ
  • ﹹ
  • ﹻ
  • ﹽ
  • ﹿ


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) ARABIC TATWEEL
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Arabic
General Category (gc) Modifier Letter
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Arabic Letter
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ـ
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ـ
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ـ
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ـ
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ـ
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ـ
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ـ
Case Folding (cf) ـ
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ـ
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ـ
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Join Causing
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ـ
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) OLetter
Simple Case Folding (scf) ـ
Script Extension (scx) Arabic Mandaic Mani Phlp Syriac
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) ALetter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)