U+0651 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Arabic in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Nonspacing Mark and inherits its script property from the preceding character. It is also used in the scripts Arabic, Syriac.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Nonspacing Mark and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 8 other glyphs. In text U+0651 behaves as Combining Mark regarding line breaks. It has type Extend for sentence and Extend for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Extend.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

Shaddah (Arabic: شَدَّة‎ shaddah "[sign of] emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid تشديد tashdīd "emphasis"), is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). It is functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of languages like Latin, Italian, Swedish, and Ancient Greek, and is thus rendered in Latin script in most schemes of Arabic transliteration, e.g. رُمَّان = rummān 'pomegranates'.

In shape, it is a small letter س s(h)in, standing for shaddah. It was devised for poetry by al-Khalil ibn Ahmad in the eighth century, replacing an earlier dot.

When a shadda is used on a consonant which also takes a fatḥah /a/, it is written above the shaddah, while if it had a kasrah (a dash below the consonant indicating that it takes a short /i/ as its vowel), the kasrah is written between the consonant and the shaddah, under the shaddah, rather than in its normal place.

Consonant length in Arabic is contrastive: دَرَسَ darasa means 'he studied' while دَرَّسَ darrasa means 'he taught'; بَكى صَبِي bakā ṣabī means 'a youth cried' while بَكّى الصَّبِي bakkā ṣ-ṣabī means 'a youth was made to cry'. A consonant may be long because of the form of the noun or verb; e.g., the causative form of the verb requires the 2nd consonant of the root to be long, as in darrasa above, or by assimilation of consonants, for example the l- of the Arabic definite article al- assimilates to all dental consonants, e.g. (الصّبي) (a)ṣ-ṣabī instead of (a)l-ṣabī, or through metathesis, the switching of sounds, for example أَقَلّ aqall 'less, fewer' (instead of *أَقْلَل aqlal), as compared to أَكْبَر akbar 'greater'.

A syllable closed by a long consonant is made a long syllable. This affects both stress and prosody. Stress falls on the first long syllable from the end of the word, hence أَقَلّ aqáll (or, with iʻrāb: aqállu) as opposed to أَكْبَر ákbaru, مَحَبَّة maḥábbah 'love, agape' as opposed to مَعْرِفَة maʻrifah '(experiential) knowledge'. In Arabic verse, when scanning the meter, a syllable closed by a long consonant is counted as long, just like any other syllable closed by a consonant or a syllable ending in a long vowel: أَلا تَمْدَحَنَّ a-lā tamdaḥanna 'Will you not indeed praise...?' is scanned as a-lā tam-da-ḥan-na: short, long, long, short, long, short.


System Representation
UTF-8 D9 91
UTF-16 06 51
UTF-32 00 00 06 51
URL-Quoted %D9%91
HTML-Escape ّ
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ّ
digraph 3+
Encoding: ISO-8859-6 (hex bytes) F1
Encoding: WINDOWS-1256 (hex bytes) F8

Related Characters

  • ﱞ
  • ﱟ
  • ﱠ
  • ﱡ
  • ﱢ
  • ﱣ
  • ﳲ
  • ﳳ
  • ﳴ
  • ﹼ
  • ﹽ


  • ﱞ
  • ﱟ
  • ﱠ
  • ﱡ
  • ﱢ
  • ﳲ
  • ﳳ
  • ﳴ


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) ARABIC SHADDA
Unicode 1 Name (na1) ARABIC SHADDAH
Block (blk) Arabic
General Category (gc) Nonspacing Mark
Script (sc) Inherited
Bidirectional Category (bc) Nonspacing Mark
Combining Class (ccc) 33
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ّ
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ّ
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ّ
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ّ
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ّ
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ّ
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ّ
Case Folding (cf) ّ
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ّ
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ّ
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Extend
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Transparent
Line Break (lb) Combining Mark
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ّ
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Extend
Simple Case Folding (scf) ّ
Script Extension (scx) Arabic Syriac
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Extend
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)