U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA

U+0A3C was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Gurmukhi in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Nonspacing Mark and is mainly used in the Gurmukhi script. The character is also known as pairin bindi.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Nonspacing Mark and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 18 other glyphs. In text U+0A3C behaves as Combining Mark regarding line breaks. It has type Extend for sentence and Extend for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Extend.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

Nuqta (Hindi-Urdu नुक़्ता, نقطہ, from the Arabic nuqta نقطة "dot"), also spelled Nukta, is a term for a diacritic mark introduced in Devanagari (and some other Indian scripts) used to represent sounds from other languages which do not have a native character. It takes the form of a dot placed below a character. Also, in the Urdu script, there "are some letters in Urdu that share the same basic shape but differ in the placement of dots(s) or nuqta(s)", e.g. the letter ع ain, with the addition of a nuqta, becomes the letter غ g͟hain.

Examples from Devanagari, the script used to write Hindi, are: क़ qa, ख़ kḫa, ग़ ġa, ज़ za, ड़ da, ढ़ ṛha, फ़ fa, झ़ zha, modifying क ka, ख kha, ग ga, ज ja, ड ḍa, ढ ḍha, फ pha, झ jha, respectively. These phonemes have marginal existence in Hindi, occurring in some Perso-Arabic loanwords. The term nuqta नुक़्ता itself is an example; other examples include क़िला (قلعہ) qila "fortress", and आग़ा ख़ान Aga Khan (آغا خان, combination of a Perso-Arabic (aga) and a Turko-Mongolic (khan) honorific, now the title of the leader of the Nizari Ismaili sect.

The nuqta, and the phonological distinction it represents, is sometimes ignored in practice, i.e. क़िला qila can simply be spelled as किला kila. Manisha Kulshreshtha and Ramkumar Mathur write in the text Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity that "A few sounds, borrowed from the other languages like Persian and Arabic, are written with a dot (bindu or nukta). Many native Hindi speakers, especially those who come from rural backgrounds and do not speak really good Khariboli, pronounonce these sounds as the nearest equivalents." For example, these rural speakers will assimilate the sound ɣ (ग़ غ) as ɡ (ग گ). However, a text on modern Hindi grammar by one author Vajpeyi (1957ff.) allows for the nuqta in only two letters, ड़ ṛa and ढ़ ṛha, arguing that the other letters written with nuqta show no phonological differentiation in spoken Hindi, so that writing the nuqta would be just a pedantic exercise in orthography, or etymology. With these differing recommendations, "there is no uniformity among the Hindi users in the use of these adapted consonants."

With a renewed Hindi-Urdu language contact, many Urdu writers now publish their works in Devanagari editions. Since the Perso-Arabic orthography is preserved in Nastaʿlīq script Urdu orthography, these writers use the nuqta in Devanagari when transcribing these consonants.

Representations

System Representation
2620
UTF-8 E0 A8 BC
UTF-16 0A 3C
UTF-32 00 00 0A 3C
URL-Quoted %E0%A8%BC
HTML-Escape ਼
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ਼
alias pairin bindi

Related Characters

  • ਲ਼
  • ਸ਼
  • ਖ਼
  • ਗ਼
  • ਜ਼
  • ਫ਼

Confusables

  • ̣
  • ִ
  • ׅ
  • ़
  • ়
  • ਼
  • ઼
  • ଼
  • ఢ
  • భ
  • ష
  • ᳝
  • ≑
  • ⨥
  • ⨪
  • ⸟
  • 𐨺
  • 𑓃

Elsewhere

Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Gurmukhi
General Category (gc) Nonspacing Mark
Script (sc) Gurmukhi
Bidirectional Category (bc) Nonspacing Mark
Combining Class (ccc) Nukta
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ਼
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ਼
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ਼
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ਼
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ਼
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ਼
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ਼
Case Folding (cf) ਼
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ਼
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ਼
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Extend
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
InMC (InMC)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) Bottom
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Nukta
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Transparent
Line Break (lb) Combining Mark
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ਼
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Extend
Simple Case Folding (scf) ਼
Script Extension (scx) Gurmukhi
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Extend
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)