πŸ˜–

U+1F616 CONFOUNDED FACE

U+1F616 was added to Unicode in version 6.0 (2010). It belongs to the block Emoticons in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Other Symbol and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Other Neutral and is not mirrored. In text U+1F616 behaves as Ideographic regarding line breaks. It has type Other for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

On Youtube this character is sometimes wrongly displayed as U0001f616.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

In statistics, a confounding variable (also confounding factor, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable.

A spurious relationship is a perceived relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable that has been estimated incorrectly because the estimate fails to account for a confounding factor. The incorrect estimation suffers from omitted-variable bias.

While specific definitions may vary, in essence a confounding variable fits the following four criteria, here given in a hypothetical situation with variable of interest "V", confounding variable "C" and outcome of interest "O":

  1. C is associated (inversely or directly) with O
  2. C is associated with O, independent of V
  3. C is associated (inversely or directly) with V
  4. C is not in the causal pathway of V to O (C is not a direct consequence of V, not a way by which V produces O)

The above correlation-based definition, however, is metaphorical at best – a growing number of analysts agree that confounding is a causal concept, and as such, cannot be described in terms of correlations nor associations (See causal definition).

Representations

System Representation
NΒΊ 128534
UTF-8 F0 9F 98 96
UTF-16 D8 3D DE 16
UTF-32 00 01 F6 16
URL-Quoted %F0%9F%98%96
HTML-Escape 😖
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake Γ°ΒŸΒ˜Β–

Elsewhere

Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 6.0
Unicode Name (na) CONFOUNDED FACE
Unicode 1 Name (na1) β€”
Block (blk) Emoticons
General Category (gc) Other Symbol
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Other Neutral
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) πŸ˜–
Lowercase (Lower) ✘
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) πŸ˜–
Lowercase Mapping (lc) πŸ˜–
Uppercase (Upper) ✘
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) πŸ˜–
Uppercase Mapping (uc) πŸ˜–
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) πŸ˜–
Titlecase Mapping (tc) πŸ˜–
Case Folding (cf) πŸ˜–
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex) ✘
Alphabetic (Alpha) ✘
Bidi Control (Bidi_C) ✘
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M) ✘
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) πŸ˜–
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased) ✘
Composition Exclusion (CE) ✘
Case Ignorable (CI) ✘
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex) ✘
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF) ✘
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM) ✘
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF) ✘
Changes When Lowercased (CWL) ✘
Changes When Titlecased (CWT) ✘
Changes When Uppercased (CWU) ✘
Dash (Dash) ✘
Deprecated (Dep) ✘
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI) ✘
Diacritic (Dia) ✘
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext) ✘
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) πŸ˜–
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base) βœ”
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext) ✘
Hex Digit (Hex) ✘
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen) ✘
ID Continue (IDC) ✘
Ideographic (Ideo) ✘
ID Start (IDS) ✘
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB) ✘
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST) ✘
InMC (InMC) β€”
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc) β€”
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C) ✘
Jamo Short Name (JSN) β€”
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Ideographic
Logical Order Exception (LOE) ✘
Math (Math) ✘
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar) ✘
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) πŸ˜–
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha) ✘
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI) ✘
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext) ✘
Other ID Continue (OIDC) ✘
Other ID Start (OIDS) ✘
Other Lowercase (OLower) ✘
Other Math (OMath) ✘
Other Uppercase (OUpper) ✘
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn) ✘
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS) ✘
Quotation Mark (QMark) ✘
Radical (Radical) ✘
Sentence Break (SB) Other
Simple Case Folding (scf) πŸ˜–
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD) ✘
STerm (STerm) ✘
Terminal Punctuation (Term) ✘
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo) ✘
Variation Selector (VS) ✘
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace) ✘
XID Continue (XIDC) ✘
XID Start (XIDS) ✘
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC) ✘
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD) ✘
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC) ✘
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD) ✘