U+210F was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Letterlike Symbols in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Lowercase Letter and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is a Font composition of the glyphs . It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Left To Right and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 2 other glyphs. In text U+210F behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type Lower for sentence and ALetter for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

The

Planck constant(denotedh, also calledPlanck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics. Published in 1900, it originally described the proportionality constant between the energy,E, of a charged atomic oscillator in the wall of a black body, and the frequency,ν, of its associated electromagnetic wave. Its relevance is now integral to the field of quantum mechanics, describing the relationship between energy and frequency, known as the Planck–Einstein relation:

In 1905 the value

E, the energy of a charged atomic oscillator, was theoretically associated with the energy of the electromagnetic wave itself, representing the minimum amount of energy required to form an electromagnetic field (a "quantum"). Further investigation of quanta revealed behaviour associated with an independent unit ("particle") as opposed to an electromagnetic wave and was eventually given the term photon. The Planck–Einstein relation now describes the energy of each photon in terms of the photon's frequency. This energy is extremely small in terms of ordinary experience.Since the frequency

ν, wavelengthλ, and speed of lightcare related byλν=c, the Planck–Einstein relation for a photon can also be expressed as

The above equation leads to another relationship involving the Planck constant. Given

pfor the linear momentum of a particle (not only a photon, but other particles as well), the de Broglie wavelengthλof the particle is given by

In applications where it is natural to use the angular frequency (i.e. where the frequency is expressed in terms of radians per second instead of rotations per second or Hertz) it is often useful to absorb a factor of 2

πinto the Planck constant. The resulting constant is called thereduced Planck constantorDirac constant. It is equal to the Planck constant divided by 2π, and is denotedħ(pronounced "h-bar"):

The energy of a photon or particle with angular frequency

ω, whereω= 2πν, is given by

while its linear momentum relates to

This holds for all fields of wave mechanics, including the electrodynamics and quantum mechanics.

The Planck constant is named after Max Planck, the instigator of quantum theory, who discovered it in 1900. Classical statistical mechanics requires the existence of

h(but does not define its value). Planck discovered that physical action could not take on an arbitrary value. Instead, the action must be some multiple of a very small quantity (later to be named the "quantum of action" and now called Planck constant). This inherent granularity is counterintuitive in the everyday world, where it is possible to "make things a little bit hotter" or "move things a little bit faster". This is because the quanta of action are very, very small in comparison to everyday macroscopic human experience. Hence, the granularity of nature appears smooth to us.Thus, on the macroscopic scale, quantum mechanics and classical physics converge at the classical limit. Nevertheless, it is impossible, as Planck discovered, to explain some phenomena without accepting the fact that action is quantized. In many cases, such as for monochromatic light or for atoms, this quantum of action also implies that only certain energy levels are allowed, and values in between are forbidden. In 1923, Louis de Broglie generalized the Planck–Einstein relation by postulating that the Planck constant represents the proportionality between the momentum and the quantum wavelength of not just the photon, but the quantum wavelength of any particle. This was confirmed by experiments soon afterwards.

System | Representation |
---|---|

Nº | 8463 |

UTF-8 | E2 84 8F |

UTF-16 | 21 0F |

UTF-32 | 00 00 21 0F |

URL-Quoted | %E2%84%8F |

HTML-Escape | ℏ |

Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake | â |

HTML-Escape | ℏ |

HTML-Escape | ℏ |

HTML-Escape | ℏ |

HTML-Escape | ℏ |

L^{a}T_{e}X |
\hslash |

Property | Value |
---|---|

Age (age) | 1.1 |

Unicode Name (na) | PLANCK CONSTANT OVER TWO PI |

Unicode 1 Name (na1) | PLANCK CONSTANT OVER 2 PI |

Block (blk) | Letterlike_Symbols |

General Category (gc) | Lowercase Letter |

Script (sc) | Common |

Bidirectional Category (bc) | Left To Right |

Combining Class (ccc) | Not Reordered |

Decomposition Type (dt) | Font |

Decomposition Mapping (dm) | |

Lowercase (Lower) | ✔ |

Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) | |

Lowercase Mapping (lc) | |

Uppercase (Upper) | ✘ |

Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) | |

Uppercase Mapping (uc) | |

Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) | |

Titlecase Mapping (tc) | |

Case Folding (cf) | |

ASCII Hex Digit (AHex) | ✘ |

Alphabetic (Alpha) | ✔ |

Bidi Control (Bidi_C) | ✘ |

Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M) | ✘ |

Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) | |

Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) | None |

Cased (Cased) | ✔ |

Composition Exclusion (CE) | ✘ |

Case Ignorable (CI) | ✘ |

Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex) | ✘ |

Changes When Casefolded (CWCF) | ✘ |

Changes When Casemapped (CWCM) | ✘ |

Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF) | ✔ |

Changes When Lowercased (CWL) | ✘ |

Changes When Titlecased (CWT) | ✘ |

Changes When Uppercased (CWU) | ✘ |

Dash (Dash) | ✘ |

Deprecated (Dep) | ✘ |

Default Ignorable Code Point (DI) | ✘ |

Diacritic (Dia) | ✘ |

East Asian Width (ea) | Neutral |

Extender (Ext) | ✘ |

FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) | |

Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) | Any |

Grapheme Base (Gr_Base) | ✔ |

Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext) | ✘ |

Grapheme Link (Gr_Link) | ✘ |

Hex Digit (Hex) | ✘ |

Hangul Syllable Type (hst) | Not Applicable |

Hyphen (Hyphen) | ✘ |

ID Continue (IDC) | ✔ |

Ideographic (Ideo) | ✘ |

ID Start (IDS) | ✔ |

IDS Binary Operator (IDSB) | ✘ |

IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST) | ✘ |

InMC (InMC) | — |

Indic Positional Category (InPC) | NA |

Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) | Other |

ISO 10646 Comment (isc) | — |

Joining Group (jg) | No_Joining_Group |

Join Control (Join_C) | ✘ |

Jamo Short Name (JSN) | — |

Joining Type (jt) | Non Joining |

Line Break (lb) | Alphabetic |

Logical Order Exception (LOE) | ✘ |

Math (Math) | ✔ |

Noncharacter Code Point (NChar) | ✘ |

NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) | Yes |

NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) | Yes |

NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) | |

NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) | No |

NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) | No |

Numeric Type (nt) | None |

Numeric Value (nv) | NaN |

Other Alphabetic (OAlpha) | ✘ |

Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI) | ✘ |

Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext) | ✘ |

Other ID Continue (OIDC) | ✘ |

Other ID Start (OIDS) | ✘ |

Other Lowercase (OLower) | ✘ |

Other Math (OMath) | ✔ |

Other Uppercase (OUpper) | ✘ |

Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn) | ✘ |

Pattern White Space (Pat_WS) | ✘ |

Quotation Mark (QMark) | ✘ |

Radical (Radical) | ✘ |

Sentence Break (SB) | Lower |

Simple Case Folding (scf) | |

Script Extension (scx) | Common |

Soft Dotted (SD) | ✘ |

STerm (STerm) | ✘ |

Terminal Punctuation (Term) | ✘ |

Unified Ideograph (UIdeo) | ✘ |

Variation Selector (VS) | ✘ |

Word Break (WB) | ALetter |

White Space (WSpace) | ✘ |

XID Continue (XIDC) | ✔ |

XID Start (XIDS) | ✔ |

Expands On NFC (XO_NFC) | ✘ |

Expands On NFD (XO_NFD) | ✘ |

Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC) | ✘ |

Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD) | ✘ |