U+220E End of Proof
U+220E was added in Unicode version 1.1 in 1993. It belongs to the block
This character is a Math Symbol and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script. The character is also known as q.e.d..
The glyph is not a composition. It has no designated width in East Asian texts. In bidirectional text it acts as Other Neutral. When changing direction it is not mirrored. The word that U+220E forms with similar adjacent characters prevents a line break inside it. The glyph can be confused with 2 other glyphs.
The CLDR project calls this character “end proof” for use in screen reading software. It assigns these additional labels, e.g. for search in emoji pickers: halmos, q.e.d., qed, tombstone.
The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:
In mathematics, the tombstone, halmos, endofproof, or Q.E.D. symbol "∎" (or "□") is a symbol used to denote the end of a proof, in place of the traditional abbreviation "Q.E.D." for the Latin phrase "quod erat demonstrandum". It is inspired by the typographic practice of end marks, an element that marks the end of an article.
In Unicode, it is represented as character U+220E ∎ END OF PROOF. Its graphic form varies, as it may be a hollow or filled rectangle or square.
In AMSLaTeX, the symbol is automatically appended at the end of a proof environment
egin{proof}
...end{proof}
. It can also be obtained from the commandsqedsymbol
,qedhere
orqed
(the latter causes the symbol to be right aligned).It is sometimes called a "Halmos finality symbol" or "halmos" after the mathematician Paul Halmos, who first used it in a mathematical context in 1950. He got the idea of using it from seeing end marks in magazines, that is, typographic signs that indicate the end of an article. In his memoir I Want to Be a Mathematician, he wrote the following:
The symbol is definitely not my invention — it appeared in popular magazines (not mathematical ones) before I adopted it, but, once again, I seem to have introduced it into mathematics. It is the symbol that sometimes looks like ▯, and is used to indicate an end, usually the end of a proof. It is most frequently called the 'tombstone', but at least one generous author referred to it as the 'halmos'.
Representations
System  Representation 

Nº  8718 
UTF8  E2 88 8E 
UTF16  22 0E 
UTF32  00 00 22 0E 
URLQuoted  %E2%88%8E 
HTML hex reference  ∎ 
Wrong windows1252 Mojibake  âˆŽ 
alias  q.e.d. 
Related Characters
Confusables
Elsewhere
Complete Record
Property  Value 

1.1 (1993)  
END OF PROOF  
—  
Mathematical Operators  
Math Symbol  
Common  
Other Neutral  
Not Reordered  
none  


✘  




✘  










✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  


Any  
✔  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
0  
0  
0  
✘  
None  
—  
NA  
Other  
—  
✘  
✘  
✔  
✘  
Yes  
Yes  


Yes  


Yes  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✔  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
Other  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
Other  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  
✘  


None  
neutral  
Not Applicable  
—  
No_Joining_Group  
Non Joining  
Alphabetic  
none  
not a number  


R 