U+2299 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Mathematical Operators in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Math Symbol and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script. The character is also known as direct product and vector pointing out of page.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Ambiguous East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Other Neutral and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 7 other glyphs. In text U+2299 behaves as Ambiguous regarding line breaks. It has type Other for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

An interpunct ( · ), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot (UK centred dot), is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script. (Word-separating spaces did not appear until some time between A.D. 600 and 800.) It appears in a variety of uses in some modern languages and is present in Unicode as code point U+00B7 · middle dot (HTML · · ·).

The multiplication dot (U+2219 ∙ bullet operator (HTML ∙) or U+22C5 ⋅ dot operator (HTML ⋅ · ⋅)), whose glyphs are similar or identical to the interpunct, is a multiplication sign optionally used instead of the styled ×: ab is equivalent to a × b or "a times b". The same sign is also used in vector multiplication to discriminate between the scalar product (ab) and the vector cross product (a × b) or exterior product (ab). As a multiplication operator, it is also encountered in symbols for compound units such as the newton-meter (N∙m or N m). The multiplication dot is a separate Unicode character (U+22C5), but is often silently replaced by the interpunct or bullet (U+2022 • bullet (HTML • · •)).


System Representation
UTF-8 E2 8A 99
UTF-16 22 99
UTF-32 00 00 22 99
URL-Quoted %E2%8A%99
HTML-Escape ⊙
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ⊙
HTML-Escape ⊙
HTML-Escape ⊙
digraph 0.
alias direct product
alias vector pointing out of page
LaTeX \odot
Encoding: EUC-KR (hex bytes) A2 C1

Related Characters


  • ʘ
  • ʘ
  • ⊙
  • ☉
  • ⨀
  • ⵙ
  • Ꙩ


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Math_Operators
General Category (gc) Math Symbol
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Other Neutral
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ⊙
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ⊙
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ⊙
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ⊙
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ⊙
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ⊙
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ⊙
Case Folding (cf) ⊙
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ⊙
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Ambiguous
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ⊙
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Ambiguous
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ⊙
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Other
Simple Case Folding (scf) ⊙
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)