U+A651 was added to Unicode in version 5.1 (2008). It belongs to the block Cyrillic Extended-B in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Lowercase Letter and is mainly used in the Cyrillic script. It is related to its uppercase variant Ꙑ and its titlecase variant Ꙑ.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Left To Right and is not mirrored. In text U+A651 behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type Lower for sentence and ALetter for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы, ы, usually called "Ы" [ɨ] in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the phoneme /i/ after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets. Because of phonological processes, the actual realization of /i/ after alveolar consonants (⟨д⟩, ⟨з⟩, ⟨л⟩, ⟨н⟩, ⟨р⟩, ⟨с⟩, ⟨т⟩, or ⟨ц⟩) is retracted to a close central unrounded vowel [ɨ], or [ʷi] after the labials ⟨б⟩, ⟨в⟩, ⟨м⟩, ⟨п⟩. In the Rusyn language it represents a sound that is a bit harder than [ɨ] and close to the Romanian sound î. In some situations it may occur after palatalised consonants (e.g.: синьый "blue", which never happens in Russian), and often follows ⟨к⟩, ⟨г⟩, ⟨ґ⟩ and ⟨х⟩.

While vowel letters in the Cyrillic alphabet may be divided into iotated and non-iotated pairs (e.g. ⟨а⟩ and ⟨я⟩, both represent /a/ and the latter denotes a preceding palatalised consonant), ⟨ы⟩ is more complicated; while it appears only after hard consonants, its phonetic value differs from ⟨и⟩ and there is some scholarly disagreement as to whether or not ⟨ы⟩ and ⟨и⟩ denote different phonemes.

Like many Cyrillic letters, originally the letter yery was formed from a ligature: ꙑ—formed from Yer ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨і⟩ (formerly written either dotless or with two dots) or Izhe (⟨и⟩, whose former letterform resembled ⟨н⟩). In mediaeval manuscripts, it is almost without exception found as ⟨ъі⟩ or ⟨ъи⟩. Once the letters ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨ь⟩ subsequently lost their values as vowels in the Slavic languages, the current simplified form ⟨ы⟩ evolved.

The letter is usually romanised into English and most other West European languages as ⟨y⟩, e.g. Krylov (family name, Крылов), although ⟨y⟩ may be used for other purposes as well (such as in digraphs). This spelling matches Polish, where Latin ⟨y⟩ represents the same sound; Russian ⟨ы⟩ is used to transliterate Polish ⟨y⟩ into Cyrillic (e.g. Maryla – Марыля).

Native Russian words do not begin with ⟨ы⟩ (except for the specific verb ыкать, “to say the ⟨ы⟩-sound″), but many proper and common nouns of non-Russian origin (including some geographical names in Russia) that begin with this letter do exist, for example Ytyk-Kyuyol (Ытык-Кюёль), Ygyatta (Ыгыатта), a village and a river in Sakha (Yakutia) Republic respectively, or Eulji Mundeok (Ыльчи Мундок), a Korean military leader.

In the Ukrainian alphabet, the sound [ɨ] is denoted by ⟨и⟩, and the letter ⟨ы⟩ is not used in Ukrainian. Ukrainian ⟨и⟩ usually is transcribed in Russian as ⟨ы⟩.

The letter ⟨ы⟩ is also used in Cyrillic-based alphabets of several Turkic and Mongolic languages (see the list) where it denotes a darker vowel [ɯ]. Corresponding letter in Latin-based scripts is ⟨ı⟩ (dotless I).


System Representation
UTF-8 EA 99 91
UTF-16 A6 51
UTF-32 00 00 A6 51
URL-Quoted %EA%99%91
HTML-Escape ꙑ
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ꙑ

Related Characters

  • Ꙑ


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 5.1
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Cyrillic_Ext_B
General Category (gc) Lowercase Letter
Script (sc) Cyrillic
Bidirectional Category (bc) Left To Right
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ꙑ
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ꙑ
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ꙑ
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) Ꙑ
Uppercase Mapping (uc) Ꙑ
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) Ꙑ
Titlecase Mapping (tc) Ꙑ
Case Folding (cf) ꙑ
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ꙑ
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ꙑ
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ꙑ
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Lower
Simple Case Folding (scf) ꙑ
Script Extension (scx) Cyrillic
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) ALetter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)