U+212E was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Letterlike Symbols in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Other Symbol and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as European Terminator and is not mirrored. The glyph can, under circumstances, be confused with 28 other glyphs. In text U+212E behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type Other for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

The estimated sign, ℮, also referred to as the e-mark, is a mark that can be found on some pre-packed goods in Europe. The estimated sign indicates that the packaging is filled according to the European Directive 76/211/EEC (amended by 2007/45/EC).

The scope of the directive is limited to packaging that has a predetermined nominal quantity of 5 grams (0.18 oz) to 10 kilograms (22 lb) or 5 millilitres (0.18 imp fl oz; 0.17 US fl oz) to 10 litres (2.2 imp gal; 2.6 US gal), is filled without the purchaser present and of which the quantity cannot be altered without opening or destroying the packing material.

The estimated sign indicates that:

  • the average quantity of product in a batch of packages shall not be less than the nominal quantity stated on the label;
  • the proportion of packages having a negative error greater than the tolerable negative error shall be sufficiently small for batches of packages to satisfy the requirements of the official reference test as specified in legislation;
  • none of the packages marked have a negative error greater than twice the tolerable negative error (since no such package may bear the estimated sign).

The tolerable negative error is related to the nominal quantity and varies between 9% on packages nominally 50 g (1.8 oz) or 50 mL (1.8 imp fl oz; 1.7 US fl oz) or less, to 1.5% on packages nominally 1 kg (2.2 lb) or 1 L (0.22 imp gal; 0.26 US gal) or more. The tolerable error decreases as nominal quantity increases, and is done by alternating intervals where there is a fixed error (and thus over the interval the percentage error decreases) with intervals where there is a percentage error.

The mark looks like a stylised lower-case "e" and its shape, , is precisely defined by an EU directive. It must be placed in the same field of vision as the nominal quantity. The sign has been added to the Unicode list of characters at position U+212E.

The estimated sign may be printed on a package if:

  • the quantity of product in the package and its labelling meet the requirements, and
  • the packer either measures the content of each package or carries out production checks in accordance with procedures recognized by the competent departments in the member state, and
  • the packer holds at the disposal of those departments the documents containing the results of such checks and corrections and adjustments that have been shown to be necessary.


System Representation
UTF-8 E2 84 AE
UTF-16 21 2E
UTF-32 00 00 21 2E
URL-Quoted %E2%84%AE
HTML-Escape ℮
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ℮

Related Characters


  • e
  • e
  • æ
  • œ
  • ɇ
  • е
  • ҽ
  • ҿ
  • ӕ
  • ᵫ
  • ℮
  • ℯ
  • ⅇ
  • ⒠
  • ꬲ
  • e
  • 𝐞
  • 𝑒
  • 𝒆
  • 𝓮
  • 𝔢
  • 𝕖
  • 𝖊
  • 𝖾
  • 𝗲
  • 𝘦
  • 𝙚
  • 𝚎


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) ESTIMATED SYMBOL
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Letterlike_Symbols
General Category (gc) Other Symbol
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) European Terminator
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ℮
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ℮
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ℮
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ℮
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ℮
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ℮
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ℮
Case Folding (cf) ℮
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ℮
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ℮
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ℮
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Other
Simple Case Folding (scf) ℮
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)