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# U+2130Script Capital E

U+2130 was added in Unicode version 1.1 in 1993. It belongs to the block U+2100 to U+214F Letterlike Symbols in the U+0000 to U+FFFF Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Uppercase Letter and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script. The character is also known as emf (electromotive force).

The glyph is a font version of the glyph Latin Capital Letter E. It has no designated width in East Asian texts. In bidirectional text it is written from left to right. When changing direction it is not mirrored. The word that U+2130 forms with similar adjacent characters prevents a line break inside it. The glyph can be confused with one other glyph.

In electromagnetism and electronics, electromotive force (also electromotance, abbreviated emf, denoted $E$ or $\xi$) is an energy transfer to an electric circuit per unit of electric charge, measured in volts. Devices called electrical transducers provide an emf by converting other forms of energy into electrical energy. Other electrical equipment also produce an emf, such as batteries, which convert chemical energy, and generators, which convert mechanical energy. This energy conversion is achieved by physical forces applying physical work on electric charges. However, electromotive force itself is not a physical force, and ISO/IEC standards have deprecated the term in favor of source voltage or source tension instead (denoted ${U}_{s}$).

An electronic–hydraulic analogy may view emf as the mechanical work done to water by a pump, which results in a pressure difference (analogous to voltage).

In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of a conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an elementary electric charge (such as an electron) if it travels once around the loop.

For two-terminal devices modeled as a Thévenin equivalent circuit, an equivalent emf can be measured as the open-circuit voltage between the two terminals. This emf can drive an electric current if an external circuit is attached to the terminals, in which case the device becomes the voltage source of that circuit.

Although an emf gives rise to a voltage and can be measured as a voltage and may sometimes informally be called a "voltage", they are not the same phenomenon (see § Distinction with potential difference).

## Representations

System Representation
8496
UTF-8 E2 84 B0
UTF-16 21 30
UTF-32 00 00 21 30
URL-Quoted %E2%84%B0
HTML hex reference &#x2130;
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake â„°
HTML named entity &Escr;
HTML named entity &expectation;
alias emf (electromotive force)
LATEX \mathscr{E}

## Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1 (1993)
Unicode Name (na) SCRIPT CAPITAL E
Unicode 1 Name (na1) SCRIPT E
Block (blk) Letterlike Symbols
General Category (gc) Uppercase Letter
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Left To Right
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) font
Decomposition Mapping (dm) Latin Capital Letter E
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) Script Capital E
Lowercase Mapping (lc) Script Capital E
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) Script Capital E
Uppercase Mapping (uc) Script Capital E
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) Script Capital E
Titlecase Mapping (tc) Script Capital E
Case Folding (cf) Script Capital E
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Cased (Cased)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Diacritic (Dia)
Emoji Modifier Base (EBase)
Emoji Component (EComp)
Emoji Modifier (EMod)
Emoji Presentation (EPres)
Emoji (Emoji)
Extender (Ext)
Extended Pictographic (ExtPict)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) Latin Small Letter E
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
IDSU (IDSU) 0
ID_Compat_Math_Continue (ID_Compat_Math_Continue) 0
ID_Compat_Math_Start (ID_Compat_Math_Start) 0
Ideographic (Ideo)
InCB (InCB) None
Indic Mantra Category (InMC)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Join Control (Join_C)
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) Latin Small Letter E
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) No
NFKC_SCF (NFKC_SCF) Latin Small Letter E
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) No
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Prepended Concatenation Mark (PCM)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Regional Indicator (RI)
Sentence Break (SB) Upper
Soft Dotted (SD)
Sentence Terminal (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Alphabetic Letter
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) Script Capital E
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
East Asian Width (ea) neutral
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Numeric Type (nt) none
Numeric Value (nv) not a number
Simple Case Folding (scf) Script Capital E
Script Extension (scx)
Vertical Orientation (vo) R