U+2305 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block Miscellaneous Technical in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Other Symbol and is commonly used, that is, in no specific script.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Neutral East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Other Neutral and is not mirrored. In text U+2305 behaves as Alphabetic regarding line breaks. It has type Other for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.

The Wikipedia has the following information about this codepoint:

In mathematics, a projective space can be thought of as the set of lines through the origin of a vector space V. The cases when V = R2 and V = R3 are the real projective line and the real projective plane, respectively, where R denotes the field of real numbers, R2 denotes ordered pairs of real numbers, and R3 denotes ordered triplets of real numbers.

The idea of a projective space relates to perspective, more precisely to the way an eye or a camera projects a 3D scene to a 2D image. All points that lie on a projection line (i.e., a "line-of-sight"), intersecting with the entrance pupil of the camera, are projected onto a common image point. In this case, the vector space is R3 with the camera entrance pupil at the origin, and the projective space corresponds to the image points.

Projective spaces can be studied as a separate field in mathematics, but are also used in various applied fields, geometry in particular. Geometric objects, such as points, lines, or planes, can be given a representation as elements in projective spaces based on homogeneous coordinates. As a result, various relations between these objects can be described in a simpler way than is possible without homogeneous coordinates. Furthermore, various statements in geometry can be made more consistent and without exceptions. For example, in the standard geometry for the plane, two lines always intersect at a point except when the lines are parallel. In a projective representation of lines and points, however, such an intersection point exists even for parallel lines, and it can be computed in the same way as other intersection points.

Other mathematical fields where projective spaces play a significant role are topology, the theory of Lie groups and algebraic groups, and their representation theories.


System Representation
UTF-8 E2 8C 85
UTF-16 23 05
UTF-32 00 00 23 05
URL-Quoted %E2%8C%85
HTML-Escape ⌅
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake ⌅
HTML-Escape ⌅
HTML-Escape ⌅
LaTeX \barwedge


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) PROJECTIVE
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) Misc_Technical
General Category (gc) Other Symbol
Script (sc) Common
Bidirectional Category (bc) Other Neutral
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) ⌅
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) ⌅
Lowercase Mapping (lc) ⌅
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) ⌅
Uppercase Mapping (uc) ⌅
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) ⌅
Titlecase Mapping (tc) ⌅
Case Folding (cf) ⌅
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) ⌅
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Neutral
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) ⌅
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
Line Break (lb) Alphabetic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) ⌅
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) Other
Simple Case Folding (scf) ⌅
Script Extension (scx) Common
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)