U+78E8 was added to Unicode in version 1.1 (1993). It belongs to the block CJK Unified Ideographs in the Basic Multilingual Plane.

This character is a Other Letter and is mainly used in the Han script. The Unihan Database defines it as grind; polish; rub; wear out; a millstone. Its Pīnyīn pronunciation is m.

The glyph is not a composition. It has a Wide East Asian Width. In bidirectional context it acts as Left To Right and is not mirrored. In text U+78E8 behaves as Ideographic regarding line breaks. It has type OLetter for sentence and Other for word breaks. The Grapheme Cluster Break is Any.


System Representation
UTF-8 E7 A3 A8
UTF-16 78 E8
UTF-32 00 00 78 E8
URL-Quoted %E7%A3%A8
HTML-Escape 磨
Wrong windows-1252 Mojibake 磨
Encoding: EUC-KR (hex bytes) D8 A8
Encoding: JIS0208 (hex bytes) CB E1
Pīnyīn m
IRG_GSource G0-4425
IRG_HSource HB1-
IRG_JSource J0-4B61
IRG_KSource K0-5828
IRG_TSource T1-7153
IRG_VSource V1-607
BigFive BF69
CCCII 214E51
CNS1986 1-7153
CNS1992 1-7153
EACC 214E51
GB0 3605
GB1 3605
Jis0 4365
KSC0 5608
MainlandTelegraph 4333
TaiwanTelegraph 4333
Xerox 247:357


Complete Record

Property Value
Age (age) 1.1
Unicode Name (na) CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-78E8
Unicode 1 Name (na1)
Block (blk) CJK
General Category (gc) Other Letter
Script (sc) Han
Bidirectional Category (bc) Left To Right
Combining Class (ccc) Not Reordered
Decomposition Type (dt) None
Decomposition Mapping (dm) 磨
Lowercase (Lower)
Simple Lowercase Mapping (slc) 磨
Lowercase Mapping (lc) 磨
Uppercase (Upper)
Simple Uppercase Mapping (suc) 磨
Uppercase Mapping (uc) 磨
Simple Titlecase Mapping (stc) 磨
Titlecase Mapping (tc) 磨
Case Folding (cf) 磨
ASCII Hex Digit (AHex)
Alphabetic (Alpha)
Bidi Control (Bidi_C)
Bidi Mirrored (Bidi_M)
Bidi Paired Bracket (bpb) 磨
Bidi Paired Bracket Type (bpt) None
Cased (Cased)
Composition Exclusion (CE)
Case Ignorable (CI)
Full Composition Exclusion (Comp_Ex)
Changes When Casefolded (CWCF)
Changes When Casemapped (CWCM)
Changes When NFKC Casefolded (CWKCF)
Changes When Lowercased (CWL)
Changes When Titlecased (CWT)
Changes When Uppercased (CWU)
Dash (Dash)
Deprecated (Dep)
Default Ignorable Code Point (DI)
Diacritic (Dia)
East Asian Width (ea) Wide
Extender (Ext)
FC NFKC Closure (FC_NFKC) 磨
Grapheme Cluster Break (GCB) Any
Grapheme Base (Gr_Base)
Grapheme Extend (Gr_Ext)
Hex Digit (Hex)
Hangul Syllable Type (hst) Not Applicable
Hyphen (Hyphen)
ID Continue (IDC)
Ideographic (Ideo)
ID Start (IDS)
IDS Binary Operator (IDSB)
IDS Trinary Operator and (IDST)
Indic Positional Category (InPC) NA
Indic Syllabic Category (InSC) Other
ISO 10646 Comment (isc)
Joining Group (jg) No_Joining_Group
Join Control (Join_C)
Jamo Short Name (JSN)
Joining Type (jt) Non Joining
kIICore (kIICore) AGT
kIRG_GSource (kIRG_GSource) G0-4425
kIRG_HSource (kIRG_HSource) HB1-
kIRG_JSource (kIRG_JSource) J0-4B61
kIRG_KPSource (kIRG_KPSource) KP0-DAA
kIRG_KSource (kIRG_KSource) K0-5828
kIRG_TSource (kIRG_TSource) T1-7153
kIRG_VSource (kIRG_VSource) V1-607
kIRGDaeJaweon (kIRGDaeJaweon) 1253.070
kIRGDaiKanwaZiten (kIRGDaiKanwaZiten) 24449'
kIRGHanyuDaZidian (kIRGHanyuDaZidian) 42453.130
kIRGKangXi (kIRGKangXi) 0835.390
kBigFive (kBigFive) BF69
kCangjie (kCangjie) IDMR
kCantonese (kCantonese) mo4 mo6
kCCCII (kCCCII) 214E51
kCihaiT (kCihaiT) 973.401
kCNS1986 (kCNS1986) 1-7153
kCNS1992 (kCNS1992) 1-7153
kCowles (kCowles) 2740 2742
kDaeJaweon (kDaeJaweon) 1253.070
Unihan Definition (kDefinition) grind; polish; rub; wear out; a millstone
kEACC (kEACC) 214E51
kFenn (kFenn) 494B
kFennIndex (kFennIndex) 346.06 348.05
kFourCornerCode (kFourCornerCode) 0026.1
kFrequency (kFrequency) 4
kGB0 (kGB0) 3605
kGB1 (kGB1) 3605
kGradeLevel (kGradeLevel) 4
kGSR (kGSR) 0017f
kHangul (kHangul)
kHanYu (kHanYu) 42453.130
kHanyuPinlu (kHanyuPinlu) mó(90) mo(44) mò(30)
kHanyuPinyin (kHanyuPinyin) 42453.130:mó,mò
kHKGlyph (kHKGlyph) 2842
kJapaneseKun (kJapaneseKun) MIGAKU
kJapaneseOn (kJapaneseOn) MA
kJis0 (kJis0) 4365
kKangXi (kKangXi) 0835.390
kKorean (kKorean) MA
kKSC0 (kKSC0) 5608
kLau (kLau) 2186 2187 2188
kMainlandTelegraph (kMainlandTelegraph) 4333
kMandarin (kMandarin)
kMatthews (kMatthews) 4543
kMeyerWempe (kMeyerWempe) 1866
kMorohashi (kMorohashi) 24449'
kNelson (kNelson) 5393
kPhonetic (kPhonetic) 862
Radical Stroke Count (Adobe Japan 1-6) (kRSAdobe_Japan1_6) C+3727+112.5.11 C+3727+200.11.5 V+14042+112.5.11 V+14042+200.11.5
Radical Stroke Count (KangXi) (kRSKangXi) 112.11
Radical Stroke Count (Unicode) (kRSUnicode) 112.11
kSBGY (kSBGY) 162.47 420.41
kTaiwanTelegraph (kTaiwanTelegraph) 4333
kTang (kTang) *mɑ
Stroke Number (kTotalStrokes) 16
kVietnamese (kVietnamese) mài
kXerox (kXerox) 247:357
kXHC1983 (kXHC1983) 0798.040:mó 0801.010:mò
Line Break (lb) Ideographic
Logical Order Exception (LOE)
Math (Math)
Noncharacter Code Point (NChar)
NFC Quick Check (NFC_QC) Yes
NFD Quick Check (NFD_QC) Yes
NFKC Casefold (NFKC_CF) 磨
NFKC Quick Check (NFKC_QC) Yes
NFKD Quick Check (NFKD_QC) Yes
Numeric Type (nt) None
Numeric Value (nv) NaN
Other Alphabetic (OAlpha)
Other Default Ignorable Code Point (ODI)
Other Grapheme Extend (OGr_Ext)
Other ID Continue (OIDC)
Other ID Start (OIDS)
Other Lowercase (OLower)
Other Math (OMath)
Other Uppercase (OUpper)
Pattern Syntax (Pat_Syn)
Pattern White Space (Pat_WS)
Quotation Mark (QMark)
Radical (Radical)
Sentence Break (SB) OLetter
Simple Case Folding (scf) 磨
Script Extension (scx) Han
Soft Dotted (SD)
STerm (STerm)
Terminal Punctuation (Term)
Unified Ideograph (UIdeo)
Variation Selector (VS)
Word Break (WB) Other
White Space (WSpace)
XID Continue (XIDC)
XID Start (XIDS)
Expands On NFC (XO_NFC)
Expands On NFD (XO_NFD)
Expands On NFKC (XO_NFKC)
Expands On NFKD (XO_NFKD)